Are croissants really French?

Picture this: a sunny morning in Paris, the aroma of freshly baked pastries wafting through the air, and Parisians leisurely sipping their espressos while biting into a croissants so flakey, they shatter with every bite.

This is a typical scene in Paris and while the croissant is often associated with France, its origin story is a topic of much debate.

One popular theory traces its roots back to the 17th century, when Austria was under attack by the Ottoman Empire.

The crescent shape of the croissant is said to have been inspired by the crescent moon on the Ottoman flag, symbolizing the victory of the Austrians over their foes. Legend has it that Viennese bakers, in celebration of this triumph, created a pastry in the shape of the crescent moon, which they called “kipfel” (meaning “crescent” in German), eventually leading to the birth of the croissant.

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Top photo by Anna Shvets

However, there are other theories that challenge this origin story. Some historians believe that the croissant actually predates the Ottoman Empire, with evidence of similar crescent-shaped pastries appearing in ancient Persia and other parts of the Middle East.

These pastries, known as “cruzon” or “croissante” in old French, were often filled with nuts, honey, or other sweet fillings, and were enjoyed by the aristocracy during festive occasions. Over time, these delicate treats made their way to Europe, where they evolved into the buttery, flaky croissant that we know today.

The croissant as we know it today, with its distinctive layers of buttery dough, is attributed to a French baker named August Zang. In the 19th century, Zang opened a bakery in Paris, introducing the Viennese-style croissant to the French capital. The croissant gained popularity among the Parisian bourgeoisie, and soon became a staple in French bakeries. The croissant’s rich and indulgent taste, combined with its elegant appearance, quickly made it a favorite among the upper class, and it became a symbol of luxury and refinement.

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In the decades that followed, the croissant continued to rise in popularity, both in France and beyond. It became a staple breakfast item in French households and a must-try treat for tourists visiting the country.

In the 20th century, with the advent of mass production techniques and the spread of French culinary culture, the croissant made its way to other countries, becoming a global phenomenon. Today, you can find croissants in bakeries, cafes, and supermarkets around the world, enjoyed by people of all backgrounds and nationalities.

But the croissant’s journey to global fame has not been without controversy. In recent years, there have been debates about the quality and authenticity of croissants, with some critics arguing that mass-produced croissants lack the flakiness and buttery richness of the traditional, handmade ones.

Additionally, there have been disputes over the use of the term “croissant” for crescent-shaped pastries that do not adhere to the traditional French recipe, with some arguing that it should be reserved exclusively for the original French version.

Despite these debates, the croissant remains a beloved pastry with a rich history and a lasting legacy. Its origins may be shrouded in mystery, but its unmistakable crescent shape and layers of flaky, buttery dough continue to captivate taste buds and bring joy to pastry lovers around the world.


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